The chlorine molecule tends to become polar in nature and develops a slightly positive charge.

On sulphonation of chlorobenzene (C₆H₅Cl), ortho and para chlorobenzene sulphonic acids (C6H5ClO3S) are formed. The protonation requires to cross a barrier ΔE ∗ of 10 kcal/mol. (1,4) Chlorobenzene has an aromatic, almond-like odor, with an odor threshold of 1 to 8 mg/m 3. Its rate depends on how electron-rich the ring is; more electron-rich rings react faster. Nitration and sulfonation of benzene are two examples of electrophilic aromatic substitution.

Aromatic Sulphonation and Related Reactions the appearance of the benzene sulphonic acid being followed by U.V absorption spectocopy. Nitration. The sulfonation of p‐dichlorobenzene proceeds without a primary kinetic isotope effect of hydrogen. Step-1--Sulphonation of benzene. Soc. The sulfonation of chlorobenzene and p-dichlorobenzene with sulfur trioxide in nitromethane as solvent has been studied. The same workers23 have studied the sulphonation of mestylane in 12-13.5molar sulphuric acid at 12.30c, and found that simultaneous sulphonation and desulphonation was occurring. Some of it will dissolve in water, but it readily evaporates into air. Alkylation and acylation The alkylation and acylation reaction, known as 'Friedel-Craft reaction', is carried by treating haloarene with alkyl chloride or acyl chloride in the presence of a catalyst like anhydrous aluminium chloride. Phenol can be prepared from benzene as follows.

Sulphonation occurs when haloarene is treated with concentrated H 2 SO 4. We have discussed in chemical properties of haloarenes that electrophilic substitution reactions are common in haloarenes and that haloarenes are o,p-directing groups. The reactions of haloarenes take place when haloarene react with chlorine in the presence of a solvent (say ferric chloride).

Sulphonic acid refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula R−S(=O)2−OH, where R is an organic alkyl or aryl group and the S(=O)2(OH) group a sulfonyl hydroxide. The nitronium ion (NO 2 +) and sulfur trioxide (SO 3) are the electrophiles and individually react with benzene to give nitrobenzene and benzenesulfonic acid respectively. It does not occur naturally in the environment. There are two equivalent ways of sulphonating benzene: Heat benzene under reflux with concentrated sulphuric acid for several hours. Benzene is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid to form benzene sulphonic acid.

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